Hardness (Scale)

Hardness is very common in well water and is caused by Calcium and Magnesium Carbonate. The presence of hardness is cause by the erosion of natural deposits.

Symptoms:

White Scale formation in: piping, water heaters, dishwashers, sinks, showersetc.
– piping
– water heaters
– dishwashers
– sinks
– showers

EPA MCL: N/A

Iron (Staining)

Iron is a very common element that is often found in well water. The presence of iron is caused by the erosion of natural deposits. Generally, iron in groundwater is in the iron (II) form and is clear. When exposed to an oxidant, it turns into iron (III) and will either precipitate out or create a yellow tint in water. The different forms of iron in water are shown to the left.

Symptoms:

– Metallic Taste in Water
– May combine with Tannins in Tea to/coffee/wine to create gray to black appearance.
– Red or Orange Staining in sinks, bathroom fixtures, and laundry.

EPA SMCL: 0.3 mg/L

Note: Iron is present in two forms and caution must be used when choosing a system.

Tannins

Tannins (Staining)

Tannins are any of a group of water soluble, natural organic phenolic compounds that are produced by metabolism in trees and plants, and are part of the degradation resistant fulvic acid materials formed during the decomposition of vegetation. Tannins are produced from the metabolism of trees and plants and part of the degredation resistant fulvic acid meterials from vegetation decomposition.

Symptoms:

– Yellow/Brown Staining.

EPA SMCL: N/A

Diamond Recommendations:
DTRS
freedomTR small

Low pH (Acidity)

pH is a term used to indicate the alkalinity or acidity of a substance as ranked on a scale from 1.0 to 14.0. Acidity increases as the pH gets lower. Changes in acidity can be caused by atmospheric deposition (acid rain), surrounding rock, and certain wastewater discharges.

Symptoms:

– Corrosion
– Blue Staining (from copper pipes & fixtures)
– Rust Staining (from iron pipes & fixtures)

Potable Water Range: 6.5 to 8.5

Diamond Recommendations:
Refiner AN
Liberator AN
Liberator AN small

IRB

Iron Bacteria

Iron Bacteria are bacteria which thrive on iron and are able to actually use ferrous iron in their metabolic processes, to incorporate ferric iron in their cell structure, and to deposit gelatinous ferric hydroxide iron compounds in their life process. Iron bacteria naturally occur in the environment and are usually found on the ground’s surface. The bacteria is not harmful to people.

Symptoms:

– Slimy substance in toilet tanks and/or pipes
– Discoloured and/or bad tasting water.
– Red or Orange Staining in sinks, bathroom fixtures, and laundry.
– Musty Odor

EPA SMCL: N/A

Diamond Recommendations:
Liberator OR
DLOR small

Manganese (Staining)

Manganese is a naturally-occurring metal that, in pure form, is silver-colored with no taste or smell. It is usually present in well water and isn’t as common as iron. It is also caused by the erosion of natural deposits.

Symptoms:

– Metallic Taste in Water
– May combine with Tannins in Tea to/coffee/wine to create gray to black appearance.
– Red or Orange Staining in sinks, bathroom fixtures, and laundry.

EPA SMCL: 0.05 mg/L

Diamond Recommendations:
Liberator IR
Liberator IR small
Rustmaster
Freedom RM small
DTRS
freedomTR small

TDS

TDS

Total Disolved Solids are the total weight of the solids that are disolved in the water

Symptoms:

– May cause spotting/scale.
– Undesirable Taste

EPA SMCL: 500 mg/L

Chlorine & Chloramines (Taste/Odor)

Chlorine is a gas widely used in the disinfection of water and as an oxidizing agent for organic matter, manganese, iron, and hydrogen sulfide. Chloramines are hemical complexes fromed from the the reaction between ammonia and chlorine being used to disinfect many municipal water supplies.

Health Effects:

– eye/ nose irritation, stomach discomfort

Symptoms:

– Chlorine taste/odor

EPA MCL: 4.0 mg/L

Diamond Recommendations:
Liberator AC
Liberator AC small
Refiner AC
REFINER - WHITE OUT small
Diamond Dual
Diamond Dual

Hydrogen Sulfide (Rotten Egg Odor)

Hydrogen sulfide is a corrosive and flammable gas often found dissolved in well water and is often accompanied by iron and low pH values. Hydrogen sulfide develops from decaying organic matter, from sulfate reducing bacteria(SRB), and from petroleum refining.
Note: A water heater in the right conditions can produce hydrogen sulfide. A new/different type of anode rod may solve the issue.

Symptoms:

– Rotton Egg taste/odor

EPA MCL: N/A

Diamond Recommendations:
Liberator OR
DLOR small
Hydrogen Sulfide Cartoon

IRB

Sulfur Bacteria

Sulfur is a very common element in the environment, and sulfur-reducing bacteria are found in almost every geographical area. They exist in soil and many geological formations, and therefore occur naturally in some aquifers. Sulfur bacteria can also be introduced into groundwater by drilling equipment that is contaminated with bacteria or by earthen well drilling mud circulation pits.

Symptoms:

– Slimy substance in toilet tanks and/or pipes
– Discoloured and/or bad tasting water.
– Rotten Egg Odor

EPA SMCL: N/A

Diamond Recommendations:
Liberator OR
DLOR small

Chloride (Salty Taste)

Chloride is an ion formed from elemental chlorine. It is very common in well and municipal water.

Symptoms:

– Salty Taste
– Stainless Steel Corrosion

EPA SMCL: 250 mg/L

Sulfate (Salty Taste)

Sulfate is a naturally occurring molecule from the element sulfur. It is very common in well and municipal water.

Symptoms:

– Salty Taste
– Concentrations over SMCL may have laxative effects

EPA SMCL: 250 mg/L

Coliform

Total Coliforms (including fecal coliform and E. Coli)

A particular group of bacteria primarily found in human and animal intestines and wastes. Coliforms are used as indicator organisms to show the presence of wastes or pathogens such as E-coli. Coliforms are naturally present in the environment; as well as feces; fecal coliforms and E. coli only come from human and animal fecal waste.

Health Effects:

Not a health threat in itself; it is used to indicate whether other potentially harmful bacteria may be present

EPA MCL: 1 cfu

Diamond Recommendations:

Shocking the well. Contact us for more information.

Arsenic

Arsenic

A metal with a high atomic weight. Arsenic does not break down or decompose and tends to build up in plants, animals, and people causing health concerns. Arsenic in water supplies can be caused by erosion of natural deposits; runoff from orchards, runoff from glass & electronics production wastes.

Health Effects:

Skin damage or problems with circulatory systems, and may have increased risk of getting cancer

EPA MCL: 10 µg/L (0.01 mg/L)

Lead

Lead

a metal found in natural deposits, is commonly used in household plumbing materials and water service lines. Lead is caused by corrosion of household plumbing systems; erosion of natural deposits

Health Effects:

Infants and children: Delays in physical or mental development; children could show slight deficits in attention span and learning abilities Adults: Kidney problems; high blood pressure.

EPA MCL: 15 µg/L (0.015 mg/L)

Copper

Copper

Copper is a metal found in natural deposits such as ores containing other elements. Copper is caused by corrosion of household plumbing systems; erosion of natural deposits

Health Effects:

Short term exposure: Gastrointestinal distress
Long term exposure: Liver or kidney damage. People with Wilson’s Disease should consult their personal doctor if the amount of copper in their water exceeds the action level

EPA MCL: 1.3 mg/L

Nitrate

Nitrate

Nitrates and nitrites are nitrogen-oxygen chemical units which combine with various organic and inorganic compounds. The major sources of nitrates in drinking water are runoff from fertilizer use; leaking from septic tanks, sewage; and erosion of natural deposits.

Health Effects:

Infants below the age of six months who drink water containing nitrate in excess of the MCL could become seriously ill and, if untreated, may die. Symptoms include shortness of breath and blue-baby syndrome.

EPA MCL: 10 mg/L

Nitrite

Nitrite

Nitrates and nitrites are nitrogen-oxygen chemical units which combine with various organic and inorganic compounds. The major sources of nitrates in drinking water are runoff from fertilizer use; leaking from septic tanks, sewage; and erosion of natural deposits.

Health Effects:

Infants below the age of six months who drink water containing nitrite in excess of the MCL could become seriously ill and, if untreated, may die. Symptoms include shortness of breath and blue-baby syndrome.

EPA MCL: 1.0 mg/L

Flouride

Fluoride

A naturally occuring constituent of some water supplies, may cause dental problems if in excess. Water additive which promotes strong teeth; erosion of natural deposits; discharge from fertilizer and aluminum factories.

Health Effects:

Bone disease (pain and tenderness of the bones); Children may get mottled teeth.

EPA MCL: 4.0 mg/L

Low pH (Acidity)

pH is a term used to indicate the alkalinity or acidity of a substance as ranked on a scale from 1.0 to 14.0. Acidity increases as the pH gets lower. Changes in acidity can be caused by atmospheric deposition (acid rain), surrounding rock, and certain wastewater discharges.

Symptoms:

– Corrosion
– Blue Staining (from copper pipes & fixtures)
– Rust Staining (from iron pipes & fixtures)

Potable Water Range: 6.5 to 8.5

Diamond Recommendations:
Refiner AN
Liberator AN
Liberator AN small

Chloride (Salty Taste)

Chloride is an ion formed from elemental chlorine. It is very common in well and municipal water.

Symptoms:

– Salty Taste
– Stainless Steel Corrosion

EPA SMCL: 250 mg/L